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letter of appeal issued to National Human Right Commission on Fulwari Kand

1) The Chairman                                                               Date : 17 Jan’ 2008
National Human Right Commission of India
Sardar Patel Bhavan , Sansad Marg
New Delhi –110001
2) The Member
National Human Right Commission of India
Sardar Patel Bhavan , Sansad Marg
New Delhi –110001

Subject : Brutal killing at Chhattisgarh state - Appeal for justice and protection of Human Right in the land of disparity.
Respected Sir,

We on behalf of SWAGAT Trust prey a humble request to your good office working for protection of human right, for justice, protection of life and prestige in the land of disparity. The incident which took place on 11th Jan’ 08 at village Phulwari under Suhela PS of Tilda block, Dist – Raipur in the State of Chhattisgarh. The detail is put up below for your kind information and appropriate action in your prescribed format please.

1. Name :                  T.R.KHUNTE, Chairman of Satnam welfare and Guru Ghansidas Awakening Trust (SWAGAT) registered at Delhi . This Trust is working on All India basis, for the welfare, humanity and justice to the downtrodden people of India. The author of the complaint also originally belongs to Satnami community of Chhattisgarh State, Professionally Master of Engg. Graduate of 1978 from MONRECO under Allahabad University.
2. Sex :                     Male
3. State :                   Originally belongs Chhattisgarh State working at Noida
4. Full Address :        (Present) G-234A, Sector –22 Noida
5. District :                 Gautam Buddha Nagar (UP)
6. Pin code :               201301 Phone No. : 0120-2413655

1. Incident Place (Village) : Village – Phulwari, (Tilda block, Suhela PS)
2. State :                      Chhattisgarh
3. District :                    Raipur
4. Date of incident :       11th Jan’08 morning in between 8 am to 1 pm

1. Name of victims:       Thakendra Bhardwaj, Village Surpanch, (Gram Pradhan), was brutally murdered and burnt alive.
2. No. of victims :         05 other family members were seriously injured in which women were molested and brutally attempted to kill them.
3. State :                      Chhattisgarh
4. Full address :            Village – Phulwari, Thana- Suhela of Tilda block
5. District :                    Raipur
6. Pin Code:                  …..
7. Religion :                   Hindu
8. Caste :                      Satnami (Scheduled Caste)
9. Sex:                          Male and Female both, out of which females were targeted
10. Age :                     Children, young girls, adult women and men
11. Whether disabled person :      Old aged persons

D.      Brief Summary of facts/ allegations of human rights involve :

Satnami is the majority community in Chhattisgarh believes in SATNAM PANTH with a massage of love and peace to all human beings. Though Satnami believe in casteless society but now placed under Scheduled Caste category after Independence. Satnam Panth has separate identity independent of Hindu society though it is account for the name sack. Satnami do not believe in orthodox culture which hits caste Hindu. Satnamis are hatred by caste Hindus because of identity and ideology.

Regarding background of Phulwari village there are about 270 family belonging to Sahu (Teli) community, very few Yadav family and gond tribe. There is hardly 10 Satnami families residing in this village. Whole village constitutes backward category.

Thakendra Satnami was born in Satnami family and he lost his father in early age. At later date her widowed mother got re-married in the same village with Sahu other community where she got two more children. Being Thakendra was having very good relation with her mother and in turn Sahu community. Some orthodox Sahu (the backward hindu) as majority community are having ill feeling with Satnami community.

Mr Thakendra was village Sarpanch for the last three years and was performing well his duties and responsibilities. Before this Sakharam Sahu was village Sarpach and at present he is only Panch. There is two three groups in Sahu community. Thakendra could become Sarpanch with support of Sahu voters only in view of Satnami being minority community in the village.

Very good performance of Sarpanch Thakendra was ill-felt by other group. To dominate him they started developing caste feeling and he was attacked once in the past, where he could survive with the help of Police interference.

There is two villages within Panchayat namely Phulwari and Newari at a distance of about 100 meters. Between two village there is one pond. Mean while Sarpanch got sanction for excavation of pond in the Phulwari village. Newari village is also Sahu dominated. Newari people started opposing excavation of pond. Since Sarpanch belongs to Phulwari village as well other community they targeted him as a head of the village. Ex- Sarpanch played vital role in exploiting difference as revenge of past two episodes (Firstly losing his Sarpanchship and secondly inter-caste marriage of Sahu male with Satnami female widow as explained earlier). Nearby village Sawarn Brahmins also played in plotting differences.

Start of Episode:

On 10th Jan’ 08 there was Madai (local market where Yadav community use to dance in celebration annual function after cutting harvest). On Madai generally village Sarpach (Gram Pradhan) is being invited to inaugurate the function. Thakendra was the continuing Sarpanch for last three years. Every year he was invited to attend and inaugurate Madai but this year he was purposefully ignored. Sarpanch felt insulted and raised his voice before them.

On 11th Jan’ 08 in the morning as usual Sarpach Thakendra went for natural call and there after he was washing mouth using Manjan (Gudakhu) in the pond. At that time some people namely Tijau (village Patel), Sakharam (ex sarpanch) along with few others came to him. Tijau went down and catch hold the foot of Sarpanch Thakendra. Sarpanch thought he is wishing him for the previous day wrong deed, but suddenly Sakharam with his three sons Mahendra, Kaushal, Ghana along and others started beating him. Sarpanch was not prepared for such situation and after lot of struggle; any how he could able to escape away from there and straight away went to his house. Viewing criticality of the situation, to save himself and other family members, he closed iron shutter of his house and locked from inside. He also locked his house from inside.

There after within half an hour a pre-planned crowd of about 150 to 200 people with arms rush to his house and started breaking iron shutter. In view of life endanger Sarpanch also made phone call to Suhela Police Station through mobile for rescue. Suhela Thana is hardly 3 KM from that village.

At about 9.30 AM another Sarpanch Kamalprasad Joshi form nearby village also informed Suhela PS for rescue, when he got the message of the ongoing incident. Mean while from outside some people went to nearby village and informed about happenings. Raju Chaturvedi from Pakridih village also informed Suhela PS over mobile phone but all gone in vain.

After half an hour the mob could able to break the shutter. They also broke the inside door abusing in the name of caste and started beating Sarpanch Thakendra with arms and lathis. Some people looted the money collected for Employment guarantee scheme and started throwing house hold items here and there. Sarpanch wife came for rescue of her husband, she was molested and heavily tortured she is now admitted to Raipur hospital struggling for life and death. Her daughter too was seriously injured but she could survive anyhow.

In between this Sarpanch in injured condition could escape from the home and to save himself he rushed toward house of old Sarpanch Khuman Sahu. But Khuman Sahu also closed his door without giving shelter to him in view of endanger of his life too due to mob mentality. The group of people along with Tijau, Sakharamand his sons, Somnath Jagdish sahu and others rushed towards Khuman’s house and catch hold Sarpanch Thakendra outside there. He was miserably beaten and his hands and legs were brutally cut there and they pulled him back to his house in the same condition.

In front of Sarpanch house all belongings of his house hold items TV, table chairs cloths etc were taken out by attackers and spread straw over it burnt them. Sarpanch was then thrown alive in the burning flame. It is worst then terrorist attack and highly inhuman act can be well imagined about the prevailing situation. The attackers also threatening all other people for repetition of similar happenings if they open their mouth against it or giving any witness in the matter.

The whole carnage took about 5 to 6 hours, neither any rescue operation was done nor police rushed to the spot except the total administration was acting as watch dog. At about 9.30AM Tildabandha Sarpanch Kamalprasad Joshi informed Suhela Thana and also to SDO(P) Shukla but ended with shameful result.

On the contrary SDO(P) Shukla who was well verse about carnage is giving derogatory remark about public representative who was hon’le Sarpanch duly elected by people of the village in a democratic India is uncalled for. It appears that Police was connived with culprit and they purposefully did not reached the spot knowing well before that, is a matter of high level investigation to bring out the truth behind the carnage.

Step motherly treatment of administration towards Satnami people has been seen in the past also. The scheduled caste people are always victims of the circumstances.

E.    Whether complaint is against member of Armed forces / Para-Military :                     No

F.    Whether similar complaint has been filed before any court / State Human Rights Commission :                     No

G.    Name designation and address of public servant against whom complaint is being made : SDO(P) Shukla of that Tilda Janpad and others who are trying to cover up / wipe out the witnesses.

H.     Name designation & address of the authority / officials to whom the public servant is answerable : DM Raipur, CM Chhattisgarh and other associates.

I.      Prayer / Relief if any sought:

i) Proper FIR shall be recorded on individual victim basis and culprits shall be booked under SC atrocities act besides Loot, Docoity, murder, attempt to rape etc.

ii) Local Police official must be removed immediately for proper investigation, justice to the victims and exposure of culprits.

iii) Proper protection shall be given to the victims to safeguard their life and prestige. Loss/ damage of properties shall be recovered immediately.

iv) The real culprit behind the carnage should be exposed through independent CBI/ Judicial enquiry, which are creating caste conflict within backward and scheduled caste communities.

v) Legal aid shall be provided to the victims.

vi) Supply of arms on free of cost to the victims to protect and safeguard their life.

Kindly spare a few moments by giving an appointment to explain the detail

Kind regards

Yours truly,

(T.R.Khunte )
Chairman SWAGAT
Satnam Welfare And Guru Ghasidas Awakening Trust
G-234A, Sector–22, Noida - 201301

Fulwai Kand (Tilda Block Raipur District CG)

p`osa iva&iPt idnaaMk ¹ 14¹01 ¹ 2008
savaNa- ihnduAaoM Wara satnaamaI sarpMca kI inama-ma h%yaa kr ijanda jalaayaa gayaa

Fulwai Kand (Tilda Block Raipur District CG)

ivagat idnaaMk 10 janavarI 2008:
p`aPt jaanakarI ko Anausaar ivagat dsa janavarI 2008 kao jaba pUra doSa nava vaYa- kI KuiSayaa^ manaanao maoM lagaa huAa qaa tba AaOrabaaMQaa ³ijalaa duga-´ kI trh puna: kuC Asaamaaijak t%va YaDyaM~ kr iGanaaOnaI AmaanavaIya GaTnaa kao Anjaama donao maoM lagao hue qao. yah GaTnaa rayapur ijalaa ko itlada blaak maoM sauholaa qaanaa ko Antga-t ga`ama fUlavaarI kI hO. fUlavaarI pMcaayat ko Antga-t dao gaaMva Aato hO ijasamaoM naovaarI BaI Saaimala hO. naovaarI AaOr fUlavaarI daonaaoM kI saImaa ko baIca kovala ek talaaba ka fasalaa hO. daonaaoM gaaMva ka fasalaa lagaBaga 100 maITr hI haogaa. zkond` BaarWaja daonaaoM gaaMva ka saamaUihk sarpMca qaa. fUlavaarI maoM lagaBaga 250 Gar ko saahU pirvaar ko Alaavaa Aaz dsa Gar ko ravat va kuC gaaoD, AaidvaasaI va kovala saat Gar ko satnaamaI inavaasa krto hMO. fUlavaarI gaaMva maoM satnaaimayaaoM kI saM#yaa bahut kma haonao ko baavajaUd ApnaI xamataÊ kaya-kuSalata va imalanasaar haonao ko karNa zkond` sarpMca banaa huAa qaa. baccao baUZ,o saba sarpMca ka Aadr krto qao. sarpMca ko maohnat sao gaaMva maoM baMQaa inamaa-Na kI svaIkRit hu[- hO ijasamao jaldI kama Sau$ haonao vaalaa qaa. naovaarI gaaMva vaalaaoM kao baaMQa talaaba kI saImaa kao laokr kuC Aapi%t haonao lagaa qaa. jabaik baaMQa daonaaoM gaaMva kI saImaa sao lagaa huAa hO. [saI saImaa kao laokr daonaaoM gaaMva maoM manamauTava haonao lagaa. zkond` fUlavaarI gaaMva maoM rhnao ko karNa ]sao hI inaSaanaa banaayaa gayaa.

GaTnaa sao ek idna phlao fulavaarI gaaMva maoM maD,[- ³ra]t naacaa´ hao rha qaa. maD,[- mao Aksar gaaMva ko p`Qaana kao svaagat hotu AamaMi~t krto hO. laoikna pICo SaOtanaI idmaak kama kr rha qaa AaOr yaaojanaa baw trIko sao sarpMca kao AamaM~Na nahIM idyaa gayaa. sarpMca nao Apnao Apmaana samaJa kr gaaMva ko savaNa- ihnduAaoM kao ApnaI baat rKI. maamalaa yahIM SaaMt nahIM huAa AaOr Saaitr idmaak jaao pICo kama kr rha qaa maaOko kI tlaaSa maoM qaa. saaMp`daiyak taktaoM kao laaogaaoM kao ]ksaayaa. maaOka pato hI dUsaro idna saubah dao Za[- saaO kI saM#yaa maoM laaoga [kT\za hao sarpMca kI tlaaSa maoM inakla pD,o. sarpMca saubah lagaBaga saaZ,o Aaz naaO bajao talaaba maoM gauD,aKu maMjana kr rha qaa. batayaa jaata hO ik ]saI samaya kuC laaogaaoM ko saaqa itja] naama ka ek vyai@t nao Aakr sarpMca ko pOr kI Aaor JaUka. sarpMca kao lagaa ik vah maD,[- ko baad p`Naama krnao Aayaa hO AaOr baakI BaID, BaI Saayad ]naka AaSaIvaa-d laonao Aa rho hO. ]sao Apanao h%yaaraoM ko baaro maoM iksaI BaI trh kI YaDyaM~ ka AaBaasa nahIM qaa. @yaaoMik pUva- maoM eosaI kao[- GaTnaa nahIM GaTI qaI. itja] nao naIcao JaUk kr sarpMca zkond` kao pOr pkD, ilayaa tqaa saaKarama va Anya imalakr sarpMca kao maarnao lagao. iksaI trh CuD,akr sarpMca vaha^ sao Baagaa AaOr Apnao Gar phu^ca kr pirisqait kao BaaMpto hue laaoho ka saTr lagaakr ]samaoM BaItr sao talaa lagaa idyaa tqaa Apnao pirvaar kao Gar ko Andr iCpa laonao maoM bauiwma%ta samaJaa.

eosaa batayaa jaata hO ik kuC dor baad dao Za[- saaO ihndu savaNaao- kI pUrI faOja ³BaID,´ yaaojanaabaw trIko sao sarpMca ko Gar maoM kUca kr idyaa. AaQaa paOna GaMTo tk laaoho ka saTr taoD,to rho. saTr TUT jaanao pr laaoga Gar ko BaItr TUT pD,o. kuC laaoga sarpMca ko Gar ka saamaana [Qar }Qar taoD,to hue ibaKrnao lagao. saaKarama jaao BaUtpUvao sarpMca rha hO vat-maana maoM kovala pMca hO Apnao har ka badlaa laonao ka maaOka imala gayaa vah Apnao tInaaoM laD,kaoM va saaomanaaqa jagadISa ko saaqa Gar ko BaItr sarpMca zkond` pr TUT pD,o. zgaond` Akolaa pD, gayaa AaOr savaNa- saaMp`daiyak takto saOkD,aoM maoM caaraoM trf sao iGar gayaa. Aasa pasa ko laaoga Baya ko karNa bacaava ko ilae ]sako pasa nahIM phu^ca sako. zkond` kI pi%na baIca bacaava ko ilae Aa[- ]sao baurI trh maarto hue ASlaIla hrkt ko saaqa Gaayala kr idyaa gayaa. ABaI rayapur Asptala maoM jaIvana marNa ko baIca jaUJa rhI hO. sarpMca kI baoTI BaI baIca maoM Aa[- AaOr vah BaI ASlaIla hrktaoM ko saaqa gaMBaIr caaoT KayaI ]sa pr hMisayaa sao hmalaa ikyaa gayaa jaana bacaato– bacaato haqa pr gaMBaIr caaoT lagaa hO. sarpMca zkond` Gaayala Avasqaa maoM hI jaana bacaato hue Gar sao baahr Baagaa. ApnaI jaana bacaanao ko ilae BaUtpUva- sarpMca Kumaanau saahU ko drvaajao maoM phu^caa laoikna Kumaanau nao BaI BaID, sao Baya Kakr Apnaa drvaajaa band kr ilayaa. KUnaI dirndo TUT pD,o AaOr Kumaanau ko Gar ko baahr sarpMca zkond` ka haqa pOr kaT Dalao va AQamaara halat maoM sarpMca kao ]sako Gar ko pasa GasaITto huya puna laayao tqaa ]saI ko Gar ko saamaana kao lakD,I ko plaMga kusaI- saaofa TIvaI kpD,o [%yaaid kao jalaakr ]saI maoM sarpMca kao baba-rtapUva-k ijanda jalaa idyao. kosatra ko baad savaNa- saaMp`daiyak maanaisakta ka iSakar ek AaOr sammaainat gaa`ma p`Qaana kovala satnaamaI haonao ko naato hao balaI caZ, gayaa.

batayaa jaata hO ik GaTnaa kI pUrI Kbar esaDIAao pI Sau@laa kao phlao sao qaa. [saI baIca GaTnaa kI Kbar pato hI itladabaaMQaa ko sarpMca kmalap`saad jaaoSaI nao t%kala puilasa qaanaa sauholaa kao Kbar phucaayaa laoikna puilasa KamaaoSa saunatI rhI vaha^ GaTnaa sqala pr jaakr sarpMca kI jaana bacaanao ka kao[- p`yaasa nahIM ikyaa. pD,kIDIh ko rajaU catuvoa-dI nao samaya rhto hue GaTnaa kI Kbar pato hI puilasa qaanaa kao tIna baar Apnao maaobaa[la sao saUcanaa donao ka p`yaasa ikyaa. laoikna qaanaa p`BaarI nao kao[- Qyaana nahIM idyaa Saayad ]nho pUva- AadoSa rha hao vaha^ nahIM jaanao ka barnaa samaya rhto kaya-vaahI krnao pr yah GaTnaa Tlaa sakta qaa. puilasa Saayad GaTnaa sao pUva- jaanakar qaI ijasaka namaUnaa esaDIAaopI Sau@laa jaI ko bayaana sao pta calata hO ik ek [jjatdar ga`ama p`Qaana t%kailana sarpMca kao inagaranaISauda badmaaSa krar do rhI hO. Balaa sarpMca jaOsao sammaanaIya pdasaIna vyai@t kao janata nao Apnaa jana p`itnaIiQa cayana ikyaa yah tao na kovala p`itnaIiQa%na kanaUna ka Avaholanaa hO bailk p`jaatM~ ka Kulaa Apmaana hO ijasao maaOna krar doto hue sarkar caupcaap doK rhI hO.

eosaa lagata hO ik sarkarI tM~ [sa inayaaoijat YaDyaM~ ka maUk samaqa-k hO AaOr GaTnaa ko AMjaama sao vaaikf qaI Anyaqaa KUnaI dirndo baoKaOf saD,kaoM pr Kulaa AatMk fOlaato najar nahIM Aato. Aapkao jaanakr yah AaScaya- haogaa ik ijana laaogaaoM nao h%yaa ikyaa ]namaoM sao ek BaI ABaI pkD,a nahIM gayaa hO. kuC baUZ,o laaogaaoM kao samaJaabaUJaa kr yaaojanaabaw trIko sao igarFtar ikyaa gayaa hO AaOr vaastivak KUnaI baahr gavaahaoM kao Dranao Qamakanao maoM lagao hue hOM. yah BaI batayaa gayaa hO ik yaid iksaI nao [sa GaTnaa kao batanao yaa gavaah bananao ki kaoiSaSa krogaa ]saka BaI vahI Anjaama haogaa jaao sarpMca zkond` ka huAa hO. xao~ maoM Baya ka vaatavarNa vyaaPt hO. sarkarI tM~ Kasakr ]ppuilasa AQaIxak ka bayaana [sa baat ka sabaUt dota hO. @yaa sarkaar sao svatM~ nyaaya kI AaSaa kI jaa saktI hOÆ @yaa sarkaar [sa pUrI GaTnaa kI saI baI Aa[- jaaMca krakr Apnaa inaYklaMk Civa ka pircaya dogaI. yaa maamalaa kao taoD, maraoD, kr poSa krnao ka p`yaasa krogaI. hma maanava AiQakar Aayaaoga sao BaI Aaga`h kroMgao kI vah [sa AmaanavaIya GaTnaa ka inaYpxa jaaMca kranao AaOr daoiYayaaoM kao kD,I sao kD,I sajaa idlaanao maoM madd kro.

eosaa BaI batayaa jaata hO ik GaTnaa ko ek idna phlao hI Aasa pasa ko k[- gaaMvaaoM maoM eosaI GaTnaa haonao kI Kbar qaI ijasakI yaaojanaa gauPt $p sao tOyaar kI jaa rhI qaI. Baazapara ka ek p~kar BaI [sa baat kao puiYT krta hO laoikna vah BaI Baya vaSa Apnaa naama nahIM batanaa caahta. AaAao hma saba imalakr maanavata ko iht maoM [na h%yaaraoM kI kui%sat manasaa ka Kulakr Ba%sa-naa kro. Aapsao AnauraoQa hO ik sa%yata kao saamanao laanao maoM hmaara madd kroM. saBaI maanava ihtkarI saMsqaaAaoM va bauiwjaIiva vaga- sao ApIla hO ik [sa iGanaaOnaI jaGanya h%yaakaMD kI Kulakr inanda kroM.
Wara :
satnaama klyaaNa va gau$ GaasaIdasa caotnaa saMsqaana

Attack On Satnami - At Gumka Distt Durg (Chhattisgarh)

C%tIsagaZ, maoM savaNa- ihnduAaoM Wara AvaNa- ihnduAaoM pr A%yaacaar

By Tamaskar Tandon and Goldy M. George 23 August, 2004
    On 16th August 2004, the next day of Independence Day, nearly 250 Dalits were attacked by caste Hindus numbering about 800 at the village of Gumka, in the Chattisgarh state of India. More than 150 people including 35-40 women are injuried in this gruesome attack. The police and local administration is taking a lethargic attitude towards the culprits. Here is a fact finding report prepared by Adv. Tamaskar Tandon and Goldy M. George of Dalit Study circle.
    On 17th August 2004, front-page news appeared in Nav Bharat with a heading "Ghumka mei Maarpeet Ke Baad Jatiya Tanav ". While reading the details in the news, I found that it was a case of atrocities and violence on none others, but Dalits. From Raipur we tried to get in touch with out Dalit friends across the state and even in Nagpur Maharastra in order to communicate about the incident.
    Gumka is at a distance of 6 km from Balod block; Balod is at a distance of 56 km from the district headquarter Durg. The next day morning I along with Adv. Tamaskar Tandon from Durg visited the spot. While the facts unfolded one after another, it was just trembling. Here is a concise of the different dimensions of our findings.
 (on the left the Team of SWAGAT visited the spot for help the victims)
Facts of the Incident:

    On the morning of 16th August around 7 am, the whole village of Ghumka encircled the two Satnami bastis holding lathis . Among the besiegers there were young and old, men and women, boys and girls, who were nearly countless according to Dalits. According to Guman, "the population of the non-Satnamis is about 800 in the village and we couldn't distinguish anyone who was not there in the heinous act".
    The attackers belonged to different communities viz. Kalar, Teli, Yadav, Thetwar, Kewat, and Muslim. Also there were Gonds, Halbas, Ganda and Mahar who succumbed to the pressure of the majority.
    While the mob neared the houses with doors open, the people entered their houses and closed them for safety. Most of the doors and thresholds were smashed off and they entered the houses and dragged people out of the house. The throng of people also demolished one house completely in the basti.
    The non-Dalits dispersed into smaller groups of 6 or 7 or 8 so that they could handle each person very appropriately . The mob didn't spare even a single person including women, senile, or even small children. They lashed them blue and black causing severe injuries to them. They were lashed like a flock of sheep.
    Women were dragged out while their cloths were either torn or disrobed off. According to Godawari who had survived with severe injuries on thigh and back, "it was an attack all of a sudden. We couldn't even realise that what is happening to us. While I was dragged I saw my mother-in-law and my daughter also being pulled out in the same way. And they beat us. They had torn all our cloths and began molestation with all using abusive language against our caste and women. Our naked body was like a toy for them. They were enjoying it every moment. They kept on calling us 'Chup Saali Chamri' and so on". They did not leave out even old women.
    "The woman Sarpanch was one the victims of this deplorable act. Her cloths were torn and she was expose naked before everyone. She then ran here and there to hide her body searching for some resort", informed one of the villager during the investigation meeting.
    Even they attacked them on their private areas. Both men and women were not left in this process. Couple of them are in critical condition. (Social worker from Bhilai visitig the village to know the detail from ladies directly)
    The encirclement was in such a manner that they couldn't run off to save from the attackers. This was the same with women and elderly persons.
    Even the cattle were not bereft off the attack. Balchand's bull is almost dead, unable to stand or walk, since two of the back legs were broken during the lashing. "We bought it with great difficulty by paying Rs. 20000/- for a pair. Now if one of the bull can't stand then what are we going to do with just one?" notified Balchand's father.
    Most of them complained that they were robbed off valuable belongings like wall clocks, audio cassette players, ornaments, money and so on. During the torture of women, even the small earrings were snatched away.
    Since most of them were injured they couldn't go to the nearby Police Station at Balod till someone from the next village in vicinity went and informed the police about the happenings. Police got the information about the whole episode that was executed between 7-9 am in the morning at about 2 pm in the afternoon. Interestingly Balod Police Station is hardly at a distance of 5-6 kms. After the arrival of police only they were taken to the Public Health Centre in Balod.
    How the Tension Groomed?
    According to people's estimation there are around 300 households in the whole of Gumka village, out of which 41 belongs to Satnamis. The total population of the village is estimated to be around 1800, whereas the Satnami population is hardly 250 out of this. However the attack was on 27 families since 14 of the Satnami families had yielded to the pressure of the caste masters.
    Tension between Dalits and non-Dalits has a longish history of conspiring against the Dalits under the aegis of caste oppression and its strings and flaws. In recent years the aggression against the Dalits began with the Panchayat election of 2000, when a Dalit woman was elected as the Sarpanch . This was against the customary law of caste and therefore not acceptable to others in the villages that a Dalit, that too a Dalit woman to be their Sarpanch. How could a woman from the malign caste become a leader of those communities who have a higher social stature?
    The same year there was another tension on Ghasidas Jayanti when the Satnamis demanded that on the conclusion day of the celebration, i.e. on 18th December the whole village should consider it as a social holiday. This means that all others should not work on that day in their fields or other work place expressing a social solidarity and unity within the diversity. The argument of the Satnami community was that we have been observing all other rituals and festivals of Hindus and adopted social holiday on all these days. But the non-Satnamis said that we have no such plans to observe a social holiday for Ghasidas Jayanti. The pretext was that this year there is famine and hence if we don't work we will be out of resources for our family. Satnamis were of the opinion that famine is a common problem for all and it was more severe for them since they had lesser land and resources. The Satnamis tried to make the non-Dalits understand even when there is famine they have been joining the Hindus in their festivals and celebrations. But the Hindus didn't agree to that. How could the upper caste approve the God of a lower caste community? Isn't it against the rule of caste and social obligations?
    Tension still existed and the police intervened and took action against 7-8 persons each from both the Satnamis and non-Satnamis.
    This was soon followed by an imposition of social boycott on all the 41 Satnami households in Gumka. Later 14 households were freed from the sanctions, when they agreed to succumb to the pressure of their caste lords. The implication of this was severe to unpredictable magnitude. There was one RMP in this village, who used to provide emergency first aid to the villagers was prevented from treating the Satnamis. Groceries from the shops were abandoned. Walking through the streets of Kalars, Telis and others were restricted. Dalit women were eve-teased using derogatory and undignified language like 'Chamri' every now and then. It was the same with the Dalit men in the village. A fine of Rs. 551/- was imposed if anyone dares to cooperate, help, assist or oblige to the Satnamis. If the person continues then he/she would also be excommunicated from the community as per the new social set-up.
    With this the Satnamis in the village also boycotted any participation and cooperation during the Hindu festivals and they strictly stuck to it. From thereon there was a clear demarcation between the Satnamis and Hindus in Gumka.
    In between during the summers, when one Dalit woman requested for water from the hand pump of the other communities, she was not only denied to fetch water but also called like "Are Chamri Tu Chuyegi To Paani Bhi Ashudh Ho Jayega" . This became another problem in the village with the upper caste virtually practising untouchability in its crude form.
    Apart from this the cattle of the Dalits were not allowed to graze with the cattle of others in the village. The cattle were driven away if they mingle with the cattle of the non-Dalits in the village. Even the penalty of Rs. 551/- was applicable to the boy rearing the cattle too. Hence even he didn't dare to combine the cattle of the Satnami community along with that of the others. So untouchability and discrimination continued in full swing.
    The government appointed health worker also denied to provide health facilities to the Dalits due to the fear that he too will be excommunicated, as he was a local man from Gumka itself very similar to the RMP. Whenever the sick Dalits reach them in need, the response was "Abe Chamar Tereko Dava Dekar Danda Bharna Hai Kya" .
    The Satnamis filed a case against the upper caste exposing the caste demeanour in which it was clearly mentioned different forms of caste discrimination, usage of derogatory language like 'Saala Chamar' , and practising untouchability in this village. They lost the case in the Durg court, however the Dalits have appealed in the High Court of Bilaspur. This is awaited for its final hearing.
    Since 2000 December, there was continuous presence of police in the village till 2003 November, when the Assembly elections were declared only indicating the fact that there was a growing tension between the two sects.
    Recently some space was allotted in favour of a Dalit to run a thela . This was again not tolerable to the non-Dalits, since they didn't want any Dalit to run a shop before them. This irked them and they opposed the move of the Panchayat and didn't allow the shop to run. But the Panchayat members including the Sarpanch retaliated satting that it is none of their business to tell them whom to allot the space and whom not to allot.
    On the day of independence it was again the Dalit woman who was to host the flag, which was not really a pleasant sight for the non-Dalits.
    The same day Guman, one of the Satnamis, was in severe fever and he went to the government health worker and asked him for some medicines. He denied using abusive language and further when Guman responded, he called others from his community to beat him. There was a tussle when other Dalits also reached to Guman's rescue. Somehow the instant conflict was averted.
    That night all the non-Dalits had a meeting and this was where they really conspired and designed the wholesome plot. No one knows about what actually happened in the meeting, what was the matter of discussion till late night? This was the concoction of the action plan, which gave delivery to the odious, indefensible and unpardonable event. Gram Sarpanch from backward community (Kewat) was also bitten miserably for supporting Satnami. (Wearing white Sari on left side of Photograph)
    In the Hospital:
    According to newspaper reports the number of injured were 27, but when we visited the village and took a count of all those who were injured it was as much as 120 men and 35 women. People begged them not to lash them like cattle. According to Dr. G. D. Baghel of Balod PHC, "on 16th by 2 pm we came across the incident when the local police informed us about it and we were asked to reach the place for treating the people. We found about 45 people who were injured. Some of them were minor and some were badly wounded. The police brought about 28 people by vehicle out of which there were 15 women and 13 men".
    On 17th August when we visited the hospital, we found 3 patients sitting on the corridor but Dr. Baghel clearly denied that any patients are admitted in the hospital. On enquiring with the nurse she immediately brought the hospital records to us showing that some patients were still admitted. Instantly the SDM arrived and he also confirmed that all the injured patients are back to their village or they have been referred to the district hospital in Durg. He appeared to be more confused. Interestingly we visited the district hospital and enquired about anyone being brought from Balod PHC, but it was a blank sheet on the hospital records. The SDM also confirmed that the doctors have referred 6 patients for X-ray. Dr. Baghel authenticated that none of them had reported back from Durg.
    Godavari said that, "no doctor had yet attended us properly. All we have been given is just one injection and couple of tablets. We don't know what they are giving us. We haven't eaten anything since yesterday morning onwards. Even there is no one to cook for us and bring in the village since all the women are badly injured in some way or other. We are not sure if we are admitted as patients or not". They also showed us their injuries on legs, thighs and back. She is one among the women who were manhandled during the attack.
    When we went to the village people revealed about the treatment process. Police didn't consider many as injured and therefore they left them in the village itself. Some of them remained unattended since they were unable to move out of their houses. Many women remained introvert since they felt that exposing such wounds would be gross humiliation of their modesty. Women with severe injuries and with exposable body portion went to the doctors. Many of them desisted from going to doctors as they had injuries on chest, breasts, thigh and private areas. Others were taken to the PHC on police vehicles.
An other Mahila victim of Ghumka Carnage done by Castist Hundu ( She is being given some help by SWAGAT Trust when they visited village on 5th Sept 2004.)
    "Some of those who were taken to the doctor with serious injuries on head, hands and legs needed X-ray to start proper treatment. The X-ray was more comical than medical. If someone had a broken hand then the X-ray was taken of his chest. If someone had his fingers broken then the X-ray was taken of the head. In a similar manner all the severe injuries were made to be none-injures", revealed Jageshwar. He continues, "what is the use of such treatments? Are we just fools? Or animals? It is just to dupe us".
    The SP had instructed the local RMP to treat the injured and continue his injections, painkillers, and bandage. The RMP who belong to Teli (Sahu) community is also one of those who had denied the Dalits of any sort of treatment in fear of Rs. 551/- as penalty. Paradoxically he is treating them after about 4 years and this time he enters each house to check if anyone is in pain or not. However this won't continue for long
    Why the Police Continued Silence?
    The police have kept sheer silence in this matter to the best possible extent. From the beginning of tension itself there was no concrete action against the culprits in this case. Looking at the elongated background of discrimination police could have avoided the vicious attack but that was perhaps not in their encyclopaedia of problems. What all the police had done is only an eye washing in real terms.
    Three-year presence of a police guard in Gumka village proves that there was a caste tension existing and the police took it quite lightly. This leads to the logical conclusion that they had pushed the Dalits into a conflict like situation.
    "No police had come to our rescue. Even the police had stationed themselves in the upper caste basti" says Ubalchand. This again draws another rationale that the police had arrived to provide protection to the upper caste people not the Dalits. Perhaps there could be an underlying argument that the Dalits could go for revenge, but it is irrational and unscientific by all means to thing about it when most of them are severely injured and living under fear and terror. Dalits are not yet out off the shocking incident.
    The process of framing of cases, in the past and the recent case, is absolutely ambiguous. Formerly when the despicable crime was done by the caste Hindus on Dalits, both the parties were made accused in the cases. The question is why? Only to point the finger on Dalits that they also have an equal share in such nefarious act? Maybe Yes! by doing so this could be utmost framed as a criminal charge not as a caste conflict.
    Literally the people were unable to file FIR against the culprit, since they were busy with the hospital. The one being filed by the police is not done in the right manner. "Even in the past when we tried to file FIR the police had file it in an averse manner and the case automatically became quite weak and we could easily loose the fight against the real forms of casteism", revealed Jagesjwar. He continues, "the police here had never acted in our favour and only tried to support those who are powerful by all means". Adding to this Guman one of the community elders said, "it is because of the falsified means of filing our case by the police that we had lost the case in the past".
    We went to the police station to know the sections under which the case had been filed and also to enquire in detail about the case from the police. Quite interestingly the police had filed the recent case under section 147 , 148 , 149 , 249 , 323 , 427 , 452 , and 506 of Indian Penal Code against 14 persons. The fact that an outrageous act against the most oppressed social strata of India - that too in large number - being restrained to ordinary sections of the IPC is again an attempt to weaken the case lawfully. Tactful omission of section 120-A , 120-B , 307 , 338, 354 , 355 , 356 , 357 , 378 , 503 , 504 , 505 (1) b , c , 505 (2) , 508 , 509 , various articles of the Constitution of India, other sections of CrPC as well as provisions of SC/ST (Prevention of Atrocities) Act all speaks clearly the intentional ploy behind the plot.
    5.7 Even when we enquired about the course of action being taken by the police we were not able to draw a satisfactory conclusion. Constable Rajendra Singh Thakur informed us that none had been yet arrest in connection with the case. Again he is sure that the police is searching for the offenders.
    The Drama of Compromise:
    While we were taking information from the injured people in hospital, one lady named Manju Sharma appeared who claimed to be a correspondent of Samachar Lok, a news magazine being published from Raipur. Later we came to know that she holding certain key post with the Congress party in Balod block. She tried to convince us that everything is fine and a compromise has been established between the two parties. She also tried to obstruct people from speaking to us. She was trying to tell them not to speak the truth since that would draw worse consequences. But this indeed revealed us of the piece of information that there was something called compromise established in the village.
    At once the SDM arrived and he too confirmed that people had compromised within themselves. The SDM Mr. S.C. Banjare also told us that this was done in the presence of the DIG .
    The local police provided a similar picture that the tension is over. Rajendra Singh Thakur rhetorically illustrated that a peace compromise had been created and that we are told to maintain peace and order. That is why we didn't arrest anyone.
    In the village we tried to get an impression about the peace compromise and found that it was done under tremendous pressure on Dalits. Guman and Rajesh said, "most of the community leaders or elders were injured. Hence they were either taken to the hospital. Others who were not injured went to know the howabout of those who were injured. A few elders who are the most aged among us were left in the village. The Sarpanch was pressurised by the police to accept the compromise and the police brought the aged ones in the village. She couldn't resist the pressure of the police and administration, particularly when higher officials like DGP, SP, etc. were present. She also realised that her modesty was insulted and she was made a showpiece before the other men. So some fear that if she doesn't give way to the compromise then her modesty will be again challenged. So this was the circumstance under which the compromise was forced and gulal was exchanged between the two parties as a symbol of compromise".
    Jivrakhan took the strings from Rajesh and said, "they had announced in front of the police that the compromise will be effective only after we get those five chaps whom we missed to handle, i.e. Guman, Jageshwar, Rajesh, Amman and Chandra Kumar. How could you expect us to accept the compromise of such nature even if we wish to accept? Are we just a herd of cattle for their lashes? We don't recognise this as a compromise in any case. Moreover it was done all without the presence of the community leaders and by pressurising a few present in the village".
    Arising Concerns:
    The first and the foremost concern out of this whole incident is that the monster of caste is back with its dreadful venom. Though its venom of bitterness and hatred was never dead but it was out of action in Chhattisgarh. This time it has convinced its dreadful resurgence.
    People of Gumka are living in terror. The fear psychology designed by the upper caste had properly worked in this case of proving that anyone who would try to break the shackles of caste will be defeated without any response. In this the social system is crucially assimilated into the political, administrative and psychological frameworks.
    India's caste system is perhaps the world's longest surviving social hierarchy. A defining feature of Hinduism, caste encompasses a complex ordering of social groups on the basis of ritual purity. This question of pure and impure, sane and insane, holy and unholy, sanctified and unsanctified, sacred and sacrilege are decided on the basis of the caste to which one is born. Here the Satnamis are the impure, insane, unholy, unsanctified and sacrilege as per the caste rule. How could the caste Hindus allow such things to happen that easily? How could they be allowed to rule the non-Dalits in a political way? As per their caste ladder they required to retaliate and that is what they did.
    Another ploy to make caste hierarchy acceptable to all was the strategy of introducing an extensive system of 'graded inferiority', providing everyone with an inferior grade immediately beneath them. How could the Gods and Goddesses of the Dalits be worships by the non-Dalits? Is it not against their caste rule?
    People have got less faith in the police and administration, since caste had gone deep into the blood and nerves of it. Yet people are unable to speak about it, due to horror looming on their head. The present status of accepting whatever is done to them is taken as a part of their fate as it was in the past. How could the Dalits recognise such a brutish system of administration based on caste?
    The fact that police is acting in a disreputable casteious manner is clear from the fact that they haven't yet arrested any of the culprits in this case. Even the SDM's view that everything is all right state that everything done to the Dalits is nothing wrong. Where is justice to Dalits in such a system of unequal human relationship?
    The controversial statements by doctor and SDM vis-à-vis that of the hospital staff proves that how little are they concerned the Dalit communities. Even when there are clear evidences of an attack based on caste conflict, it is justified in all possible ways and means that there are less number of people injured. Perchance the SDM and doctors are also under certain pressure from higher authorities. However this could easily produce falise reports.
    After this incident there are news of setting up of magisterial enquiry into the matter. The investigation yet to be fully undertaken is yet to trace its tracks. Undoubtedly in a caste-based social system such investigations will always have its limitations and lacunas. The police had already played its part by weakening the case as of now.
(Satnam Welfare and Guru Ghasidas Awekening Trust) SWAGAT Trust Team visited Ghumka village to help the victims and there after they met NHRC at Delhi.
    The present concern shown by the RMP is only a timely one due to the pressure of the police and administration. Once the pressure off, the former system will be reinstated and yet again the Dalits will be left out without much of choice.
    The drama of compromise is an eye washer, since the community was not consulted properly for its consent. Nor justice had been done to the people in terms of bringing the culprits under the grip of law. This is an effortless means to protect the culprits under the pretext of upholding peace. But there are no peace talks between the two sections nor there is justice done, how could a compromise take place under these circumstances?
    Amusingly many of the Satnamis are marginal farmers or landless, and resourcesless but not in BPL as per the official records. Ubalchand hardly has got 3 and half acres of land, out of which 1 acre is irrigated and the rest is non-irrigated. Out of the non-irrigated land half is just barren with almost nil production. Yet he is not in the BPL list. This puts an array of questions on the process of the BPL survey particularly among the lower strata of social fabric, which already had victimised them.
    Our Demands
    Under the above mentioned circumstances we demand for an impartial investigation into the whole incident of Gumka.
    We also insist to instruct the police to take essential steps to reframe the case in a proper manner mentioning all appropriate sections and clauses in this matter so that justice is done to the Dalits and no one again dares to do the same in future.
    We demand to immediately arrest all the culprits in this case who had committed the heinous crime not only against Dalits but also against womanhood and motherhood.
    All forces with the intention of political gain and drawing political mileage should be kept away from the investigation process. However the Dalit organisations engaged in this process should be involved in this case in view of holding a fair and just investigation.
    Proper direction should be given to the state to ensure the safety and security of Dalits living under utter terror and fear.
    The state government should also be directed to take precautionary measure of preventing such atrocious incidences on Dalits and Dalit women in particular in future.
    The victims should be properly compensated so that they re-start their lives anew with afresh sense of freedom and liberty. In reality no compensation could fill their psychological and cerebral wound that is still grey and fresh, but efforts should be made to ensure their space and dignity.
    For the last 4-5 years the Dalits in this village have been struggling for their right to live with dignity. All efforts to cause indignity and insult Dalits through means and deeds should be outlawed completely and legal action should be taken strictly against those who practice such things.
    Using of derogatory language should be banned and considered to be a heinous crime by all sections of law.
    We appeal to all progressive and democratic forces to understand the gravity of this issue and support the cause of Dalits in Chhattisgarh. Or otherwise the Brahministic casteism will once again surface in new forms and manifestations with its fangs and teeth.
Ladies visited spot from Bhilai distributing clothes to ladies victims of Ghumka Village (photo on right side showing distribution of clothes)
    Creation of a casteless and classless society is de facto the step of just, egalitarian, peaceful, fraternal and harmonious society. A society of equals, neither unequal nor more-equals, beyond the strings of caste, class, gender, race, etc. that often leads to social oppression, political exploitation, economic deprivation, cultural domination, gender discrimination, class isolation, deliberate exclusion, etc. Lets' believe in a society beyond this.
    Unless this campaign is strengthened one cannot challenge the social system from its edifice, which de facto is the real challenge to the political, economic and cultural systems.
     On behalf of Dalit Study Circle
    Goldy M. George
    ConvenerDalit Study Circle
    MD-45, Veer Savarkar Nagar,
    Hirapur Colony,Tatibandh, Raipur, Chhattisgarh, India
    Tel: +91-98933-57911
    @yaa satnaamaI ihndu hOM Æ
    Help given to victims of Ghumaka Village
A team of about 200 people from different Part of Chhattisgarh gathered at Bhilai and visited the village. We met each and every victims of Ghumka and given some grains and clothes on the spot. After 15 day till we visited this village neither any help came from BJP Ruled State Govt of Chhattisgarh nor any other volentry organisation came forward to help them in the cruicial hours.
There were ladies also went to the spot to know internal detail which ladies victims were hasitating to tell the shameful story.The team clled all the villagers and enquired about facts of happening "It was realy a shame for the Indian Society and that to when the country was celebrating Independence Day but not for Dalits of India in the hands of Castist Hindu.

@yaa satnaamaI ihndu hOM Æ
satnaamaI banQauAaoM sao Aaga`h hO ik kRpyaa vao [sa p`Sna ka ]%tr AvaSya BaojaoM.
yaid ]%tr ha^ maoM hO tao hma iksa trh ko ihndu hO. ifr ijanhaoMnao hmalaa ikyaa vao iksa trh ko ihndu hOM.
kba tk sahaogao A%yaacar. kuC tao krao saaoca ivacaar..
yaid hma ihndu nahIM hO tao hmaara Aist%va @yaa hO @yaa hma Apnaa svatM~ Aist%va banaa sakoMgaoÆ
@yaa hma saMgaizt samaaja hO yaa ibaKra huAaÆ @yaa hma saMgaizt hao sakoMgaoÆ Gar ka BaodI laMka Zayao
@yaa hma saba saccao idla sao gau$ GaasaIdasa kao maanato hOM @yaa ]nako satnaama Aandaolana kao puna: sqaaipt ikyaa jaa sakta hO. Aa[yao saba imala kr saaocaoM yahI janmaidna manaanao ka mah%va hO.

    Chairman along with Prof H.C.Joshi and Mrs Kamala Manahar Member of Parliament (RS) met National Human right Commission New Delhi during 1st week of Sept 2004
    NHRC passed on order vide letter no. 147/33/2004-2005/UC on 22 Sept 2004 to Sr. Supdt of Police Distt. - Durg and The Director General of Police, Govt of Chhattisgarh Raipur
    No. 147/33/2004-2005/UC
    (1) The Senior Superintendent of Police DURG Chhattisgarh
    (2)The Director General of Police, Govt of Chhattisgarh, Raipur
    "whereas the complaint / information dated 13/09/2004 received from T.R.Khunte in respect of 36 persons was placed before the Commission on 22/09/2004. AND Whereas upon pursuing the complaint the commission has passed the following order.
    Seek factual report from DGP Chhattisgarh and SSP Distt. Durg Chhattisgarh within two weeks.
    Now therefore TAKE NOTICE that you are required to submit the requisite information/report within two weeks from the date of receipt of this notice.
    TAKE FURTHER NOTICE that in default commission may proceed to take such action as it deems proper.
    Given under my hand and seal of the Commission, this the day of 24th september 2004.
    An other letter Received from National Human Right Commission dated 17th Sept.2004 which says like this
    Case No. 147/33/2004-2005, Dated 12/03/2005 / 17 Mar 2005
    G-234A , SECTOR - 22, NOIDA,

    With reference to your complaint dated 13/09/2004, I am directed to say that the matter was considered by the Commission on 10/03/2005. T Commission has made the following directions.
    Complaint, Chairman Satnam Welfare and Guru Ghasidas Awekening Trust in his complaint dated 13th September,2004 has stated that on 16th August, 2004 early in the morning at about 6.00 AM hundreds of Caste Hindu people gathered and attacked the houses of Satnami members in a planned manner with lathis and dandas, They Beat up women and children mercilessly and had tried to rape young girls. He further stated that one Ambikadas Satnami was seriously injured with 13 other male members, Mrs. Ushabai was beaten with 15 other female members and children were also beaten up with sticks.
    Upon perusal, the commission vide proceedings dated 22nd September 2004 directed DGP, Chhattisgarh and SSP Durg, Chhattisgarh to submit factual report within two weeks.     Pursuant to the direction of the Commission SSP Durg, Chhattisgarh has submitted report dated 23rd October, 2004. According to his report, Crime No. 199/04 u/s 147(148(149(294(452(323(427/506 IPC was registered at Thana Balod on the basis of information provided by one Ambikadas Satnami on 16th August, 2004. During investigation, section 3(1)(10) SC/ST (PA) Act was also added, During investigation, crime under the above named sections of IPC and SC/ST Act was established. Accordingly all hte named accused were arrested and chargesheet had been submitted to the Court. On an application received from the 36 victims in the present case, Asstt. Commissioner Adivasi Development Branch Durg had sanctioned Rs. 25000/- to each one of the victims.Necessary efforts are being made to maintain peace in the area. The allegations with regards to committance of atrocities on women could not be established during investigation.
    It is seen from the report, that a copy of the report had been endorsed to the State Human Right Commission, Raipur also which had taken cognizance of he complaint on 2nd September, 2004.
    As the case is sub judice and financial assistance to the victims has been provided, no further action by the Commission is called for. That apart the State Human Right Commission, Chhattisgarh had taken cognizance of the complaint earlier than the National Commission. Therefore u/s 36(1) of the protection of Human Right Act 1993, the NHRC cannot proceed further in the matter.
    The file is therefore closed. The complainant may pursue the case with the SHRC, if so advised.
    This is for information
    Yours Faithfully
     And Now A Harijan Is Killed In Police Custody by S Kumar
    ON October 5, a 36 years old young man was called to Pipariya police station in Raipur district. But, then, he did not return to his village; only his dead body was brought there next day.
     Bannu Satnami, a resident of village Sora, used to work as helper in a minibus but afterwards left the job and began to work as daily paid worker in the village. On October 5, a policemen form Pipariya police station came to his house at about 3 p m, told him that he was called to the police station for some interrogation and asked him to accompany him. Bannu Satnami then told the policeman that his wife had given birth to a girl child and that there was a function in his house, so it is not be possible to go to the police station. When told that a man named Bhagwat was waiting at the police station and wanted to talk to him, Bannu told the policeman that he did not know anybody called Bhagwat. Yet the policeman forced him to go to the police station. There was no case against Bannu Satnami.
    Bhagwat was kept in the police lockup in Pipariya on a complaint that he had got a country-made revolver and had shown it to a person. But, strangely, while Bhagwat was relesed, Bannu Satnami was detained in the police station. This news of his detention was conveyed to Bannu's sister who lives in a nearby village.
    Bannu's sister Sand in the morning and sent her father to Pipariya to inquire about her brother. She also met a close relation of a sarpanch of the area and requested him to take her to the police station so that she could meet her brother there. Till then she did not know that he brother was no more alive. When she reached the police station, she found her brother's dead body lying beside the nearby transformer.
    Having seen the dead body near the police station, the people of the area began seething with resentment and a large number of people from surrounding areas started assembling in front of the police station, asking for punishment to the culprits. Bannu Satnami's sister and father also joined the demand and opposed the removal of the dead body from there. The police resorted to lathicharge, then to firing in the air and also lobbed teargas shells on the people. They also entered the nearby houses to beat the people. Even the cyclists and two-wheeler riders were not spared. Section 144 was imposed. The younger brother of the diseased was also beaten and ill-treatment meted out to his sister.
    In the afternoon itself, a CPI(M) consisting of S Kumar, Dharmaraj Mahapatra, A K Shukla and Sheetal Prasad went to Bannu Satnami's village and met his sister and father. His sister told the delegation that Bannu Satnami was not only beaten but also given electric shock in the police station. His left eye was damaged, testicles and both the knees were also damaged, there was blood in the ear and there were black spots on the right hand side of the chest.
    The lady also told us that Bannu Satnami had applied for lone for a tubewell under the Indira Ganga Yojana but the sarpanch of the village, who is close to the BJP, has asked her to give him a 50 per cent share to him if the loan was granted. But Bannu was not ready to pay that amount. This is what led the sarpanch to hatch a plan against Bannu in connivance with the police. It is also said that the said sarpanch was already present in the police station when Bannu Satnami was called there and was also present there on the 6th when the dead body was seen. We were also told that previously also there were custodial deaths in Pipariya police station.
    Later a CPI(M) delegation met the governor and gave him a memorandum, demanding (1) judicial inquiries into the death or Bannu Satnami, and also into the police lathicharge and firing; (2) immediate suspension of the responsible police and administrative officials; (3) Rs 10 lakh compensation and 5 acres of land to the wife of Bannu Satnami; and (4) steps for improving the law an order situation in the state.
    As usual, after the incident, the state's home minister gave the statement that it was a case of suicide as the victim had touched the transformer and was electrocuted. The CPI(M) has asked for the minister's resignation.
    In Chhattisgarh, lockup deaths are gradually becoming a regular feature under the BJP dispensation. Following are some more cases of death (read: murder) in police custody this year: (1) June 6: Rajendra Yadav, Arang, Raipur district; (2) August 13: Ram Kumar Dhruv, Suhala, Raipur district; (3) September 2: Sukhpal Lodhi, Shardepara, Durg district; (2) September 4: Chandra Prakash, Ogre, Jangier district; (5) October 14: Santoshi Sahu, Pallari, Raipur district.
    There were cases of custodial death at Kanker and Bastar also. This is the picture of the BJP rule in Chhattisgarh and the common refrain among the people is that if somebody is called to a police station she/he must first get her/his life insured.

Identifying the Satnam: Hindu Satnamis, Indian Christians, and Dalit Religion in Colonial Chhattisgarh, India, 1868-1947
    © Chad Bauman
    The dissertation, an historical ethnography, critically assesses the encounter of a sectarian dalit (untouchable) Hindu community, the Satnamis, with evangelical Christianity in the late colonial period, and puts forth the argument that in this dialogic interaction a Satnami-Christian identity emerged, distinct from both that of the Satnamis and their evangelical interlocutors. On the one hand, the transformations wrought in the Satnami-Christian community were overwhelmingly the result of contact with a heterogenetic religion (Christianity), a religion made attractive by, among other things, its putative association with colonial structures of power and wealth, and with the aura of novel and potent sources of authority (e.g., "reason," science, and literacy). On the other hand, the trajectory of these transformations was orthogenetically altered; that is, the transformations were conditioned in appreciable and significant ways by pre-existing Satnami structures of thought, belief, and behavior, by the community's unique set of hopes and dreams, by its methods of determining "truth" and "falsity," and by its "history" and "tradition."
    The interdisciplinary study relies most heavily on the methods and theories of anthropology, history, postcolonial studies, and subaltern studies. It also builds upon emerging scholarship on identity, power, and gender. In order to analyze and describe the development of a distinct Satnami-Christian communal consciousness, the dissertation draws from British and missionary sources (both published and archival), texts translated from Hindi and Chhattisgarhi, and oral histories collected from residents of the region during an intense period of fieldwork. The study attempts to honor all perspectives by focusing not on history, but on the perception of history, and strives to hear the voices of the subaltern above the din of western voices which framed, filtered, and interpreted them. A defense of the dissertation is currently scheduled for December 2004.
    "The central argument of the book concerns the formation of the Satnami sect, the transformation of the sect into a caste, the internal organization of the Satnami caste, and its relationships with other castes.
    "This study primarily focuses on the structural changes leading to social separatism. The approach adopted is a historical-cultural-structural approach, and a satisfactory conceptual process is found in the notion of 'caste substantialization' for the study and analysis of caste dynamism. Caste substantialization is a process by which castes separate, distinguish and isolate themselves from each other and from the caste structure. Castes whose definition and identity depended on their relationships with other castes within a structural whole take on substance, i.e., independence and individuality by becoming discrete entities of a substantial whole. Building on Dumont's structural scheme, the author proposes an alternative conceptualization of the caste system, in contemporary India, as a substantial whole.

pIiD,taoM kao mauAavajaa Aba tk nahIM imalaa jabaik maanava AiQakar Aayaaoga ko Anausaar ]nhaoMnao spYT ikyaa hO ik p`%yaok pIiD,taoM kao 25000 $pyaa mauAavajaa idyaa gayaa hO. kba AaOr iksakao idyaa gayaa [saka ivavarNa Aaja BaI ]plabQa nahIM hO. hmao mauAavajaa nahIM nyaaya caaihe. jaulmaI A%yaacairyaaoM va AatMkvaaidyaaoM kao sajaa imalanaI caaihe. @yaa Baajapa sarkar satnaaimayaaoM kao nyaaya idlaa payaogaI yah saMidgQa pSna hO. Aaja satnaaimayaaoM kao gaumarah krnao ko ilae JaUz maUz kI satnaama yaa~a inakalanao jaa rhI hO. kaOna saa satnaama yaa~a hO janata kao samaJnaa haogaa. jaao nyaaya nahIM idlaa saktI vah maanavata ko pqa pr kOsao cala payaogaI. hmaoM samaJanaa haogaa.