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CHHATTISGARH - A BUDDHIST TRAINING CENTER

In older days Chhattisgarh was known as Dakshin Mahakoshal. Nand dynasty ruled India for several years. Mahananda was last king of Nand Dynasty and Chhattisgarh their there is Mahanadi River probably on his name.Mahanadi river starts from Sihawa nagari and flows downwards to Bay of Bengal crossing Orissa state. Kalinga is on the way to Bay of Bengal. King Ashoka followed the Path of right bank of Mahanadi River while proceeding to Kalinga. After Kaling vijay Samrat Ashoka changed his mind and became disciple of lord Buddha. On his way back he stayed for several days at Sirpur (Chhattisgarh) on the bank of Mahanadi River.

In the old age(at the time of Somavanshiya emperors) Sirpur was known as 'Shripur' and was the capital of South Kosal and now being called as Sirpur. Sirpur was the prominent Buddhist education center many times bigger than Nalanda Vishwa Vidyalaya of Bihar and was developed during Nagarjuna time and was at peak till 7th century as per China visitor Huen sang.

The position of Sirpur is at the top of all famous international historical places, of South Kosal ie, present Chhattisgarh. Sirpur is located at the bank of holy Mahanadi River, 72 KM from Raipur, capital of Chhattisgarh state, is completely merged with the cultural and architectural arts. It was spread over 16 KM on the right bank of Mahanadi River.

Tribal people who worship³Bagavaana bauw“ Lord Buddha as "Budha Deo" ³bauZ,adova“are now occupying this area. Sirpur has very special position in the history of Indian art due to the value of vital and original experimental as well as religious and spiritual knowledge and science as educational training Institute of Lord Buddha. This site was known 50 years back but not given importance till date, thus their intentions need to be exposed. Why the tribals have been kept ignorant about Budha Deo (lord)³bauZ,adova“ a perverted version of Buddha Deo³Bagavaana bauw“.


The brick structured Nagarjun temple (now irrelevantly named as Laxman temple) is one of the finest brick temples of the country. Its original pattern, exquisite carvings and precise construction with terrific symmetry are unique in nature. This 'Panchrath' type temple has Mandap (shelter), Antraal (passage) and the Garbha Grih (the main house). In the exterior walls and pillers the religious segments of a temple namely - Vatayan, Chitya Gawaksha, Bharwahakgana, Aja, Kirtimukh, Karna Amalak, nagarjun art and Ashok chakra are engraved in the pillars. By this time Lord Buddha was being projected as Lord Shiva and Nagarjuna as Nag (serpent). You will symbolic representation of Nagarjun-Buddha here.

The entrance is absolutely eye-catching, as it has the Sheshnaag serving as an umbrella to Load Shiva, on the top. On either side of the entrance there are many incarnations of Load Buddha, and 6th century art, erogenous pictures and Vishnava Dwarpal, to give the temple the pure historic look. A big statue (about 25 feet height) of Lord Buddha has been found in damaged condition during excavation, which is stored on Museum besides many other statues in broken condition. It appears that some body has purposefully destroyed the site. It is learnt from the history that during Shankaracharya period many Buddh Bihars have been damaged this may be one of the site.

Sirpur is known for its Buddha Vihars. The most famous is "Anand Prabhu Kuti Vihar" constructed by Bhikshu Anand Prabhu, a follower of Buddha. Though it is being linked with Maharshivgupt Balarjun period but it appears to much older probably during Ashoka period or even before. This vihar looks like a training institute in one of the subject of Indriya (body). The Vihar had 14 rooms and at the main entrance adored the Dwarapal carved in stone pillars on either side. A six feet tall statue of Buddha touching the earth is installed inside the vihar. This Vihar was double story building surrounded with thin- wide (about 5 feet wide) brick walls.

Similar to Anand Vihar another site about 400 meters away towards Mahanadi River namely the Swastik Vihar was excavated about 40 years back. It was also having number of rooms and underground steel piping for drainage purpose as a unique example of civilization. On 13 April 2005 we have been to site and saw one decorated beautiful statue of Lord Buddha on the spot, which is placed here. There were number of Buddhist training institutes under excavation near by.

Adjacent to High School another Buddhist site was also under excavation. The beauty of this site is that it is just on the bank of River. The findings are yet to come out, but huge broken bricks lying there. It was completely covered with forest looking like a small hill of big trees. The Sirpur appears like hilly area but fact is that all the hills were one time Buddha Vihar and the way badly destroyed by destructive forces appears that they were against development of Buddhism in India.

Another site adjacent to River a big temple with lord Buddha Statue is seen. Now some Brahmin Trust captures that site and named as Gandheswar temple. On the Riverside number of Buddha period statues, fine art can be seen. Inside Verandah just below tree a beautiful statue on black stone of Buddha touching the earth, Natraj, Shiv, Mahisasur Mardini are the rare ones in the premises. The historic name of this temple is Lord Budhha Gandheswar situated on the bank of Mahanadi, this temple was built through the architectural remains of ancient temples and Budhha vihars. The black statue of Buddha is being told Shiva here, yet the collections of different historic remains are quite artistic. There is ancient script engraved on the pillar of this Budhha vihar, and various pictures of 'Shiva-Leela' on the top of the entrance to attract visitors.

It is the beauty of old capital Sirpur that near every Vihar you will find one big pond with lotus plant. There are hundreds of ponds in Sirpur area which indicates well planned city and ancient civilization of Chhattisgarh. There were three to four Vihars in one place spread over more than hundred Acres with one beautiful pond in between was found on excavation.

There were number of institutes spread over 16 Km areas on the bank of Mahanadi river and inside dense forest yet to be excavated which will reveal the real story of Sirpur the ancient Capital of Daxhin Mahakoshal. It is an example to study, that how the so developed civilization was destroyed. The streets, roads, tunnels, ponds, drainage systems, educational institutes, religious institutes are matter of study for new generation to unearth the Truth hidden behind.

Guru Ghasidas in-laws house was at Sirpur, who often use to visit this place and ultimately shifted to Bhandarpuri, otherside of Sirpur on other bank of Mahanadi River and he used Telasi as his work center is also a matter of concern to understand Satnam Movement. Preachings of Guru Ghasidas is almost similar to Lord Buddha and he also followed the middle path like him. Safura Mata Vihar is situated in Sirpur another prominent place for Satnam movement.




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MAHAMAYA TEMPLE OF RATANPUR :

Mahamaya was the mother of lord Buddha. She died after giving birth to Siddarth at lumbini forest while going to her parental home. Thereafter her aunty Gautami served Siddarth and therefore he was called Siddarth Gautam. He got married with Yashodhara who gave one child namely Rahul. After acquiring knowledge Siddarth Gautam was known as Buddha.

When people followed the path of Buddhism as a mother of lord Buddha she was also regarded as goddess mother (mother of God). She was worshiped as great women power in Chhattisgarh in older days, as she has given birth to such a great Human savior. Even now Mahamaya is being worshiped as great women power in Chhattisgarh but in changed form of wife of lord Shiva a bloodthirsty goddess. It is a matter of study that how a savior of humanity lord Buddha's mother is being worshiped in different form, just to align with Vaidik Culture.

The entire Chhattishgarh Region itself is a good place for tourism, with many Historical and naturally important places. Ratanpur and Malhar is the historical places In the district Bilaspur. Both are famous for Buddhist site. Ratanpur in the name of Siddharth Gautam mother MAHAMAYA

RATANPUR - The old capital of the Chatisgarh state - the Ratanpur, is situated Approxmetly 25 km away from Bilaspur hq. in the way of Katghora Road. According to the voice of local people, it was the Capital of "Hai Hai Vanshi" Kalturi Kingdom for about 500 years and important place for Buddhist as well. (Now the name of Mahamaya has been distorted as Shaiv Shakti).

There is an old fort, which is today in scraped condition. There is very good attractive old sculpture on stone over the frame of main gate. On entrence looks Of the Tandav Dance of God Shivji and statue of Bramha and Vishnu is probably built afterward

The local area's eminent faithful one of the most important temples is the Godess Mahamaya in the name of Lord Buddha's mother. This temple is of eleventh century old made during the regime of CALTURI the king of Raja Ratnadev. In it's surrounding, there are different old temples and ponds. Before entring in to the place of Ratanpur there is a temple of Baba Bairavnath in which an idol of nine feet. There is a Bhuddeshwar Shiv Temple(probably in the memory of Lord Buddha as God Shiva) made at the feet of hill, and at the top there is temple called Ekbira Temple. Simmilerly there is found Ratneswar Mahadev temple. Basically Hai-Hai Vanshi were shiva devoties.

There is a big pond excavated in the memory of Guru Ghasidas by queen of Ratanpur when Guru Ghasidas visited the place .


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MALHAR AN OTHER IMPORTANT BUDDHIST PLACE TO VISIT

MALLHAR - (Saravpur) Once upon a time the Saravpur was the State of Capital of ancient Chatishgarh. Name appears to be similar to Sirpur. It was also a big institute for teaching of buddhism in India for a long time. It is approximately 14 Km. away from Masturi block on the way of Bialspur to Raigarh SH26. A biggest Statue about 25 feet long, of Lord Buddha has been found on excavation besides many more small statues there. At this place, there is mesuem having good collection of old sculpture being managed by Central Govt. Many more item of that period unearthed during excavation.

The temples of 10th and 11th century old are seen here. The Didneswari temple of Culturi regime is also found which has been constructed much later. Artisitc idols are found in Deor temple.

Buddha at Sarguja :

A high hill of the District with a peak, Ramgarh lies in the extreme south. It rises abruptly from the surrounding plains of the former Rampur tappa of the District. The nearrest railway station viz. the Kharsia Railway Station (in Ramgarh District), is about 160 kms. away.


Budha Temple, Mainpat

Mainpat is called as Shimla of Surguja. Tibbettians are rehabilitated at mainpat, which run small industries of designer mat (Kalin) and woolen cloths. For worship they have made beautiful Buddha temple. They followers of Dalai Lama have developed beautiful atmosphere of humanity in Mainpat.Buddha Temple is a place to appreciate the art of Buddha vihars and people of tibbet


SATNAM PANTH A MODIFIED BUDDHISM , Sikhism and Kabirpanthis

Presently Buddhism has taken almost different shape. Siddarth told to follow Buddhism by follow the enlightened path ³bauwma\ SarNama\ gacCaima´ Follow the path of Unity for strength ³saGaM SarNama\ gacCaima ´ and follow the path where majority goes (Dhamma)³QammaM SarNama\ gacCaima´ but people instead following the path guided by Siddarth Gautam applying brain the people are busy in idol worship which Lord Buddha has objected. Now Buddham has become idol of lord Buddha, not the brain, Sangham has taken the place of groupism in place of unity i.e. division of strength. Lastly Dhammam has taken the shape of construction of Buddha temple. These are all a copy of Hinduism or other way Vaidik Culture. Satnam Panth has avioded all these and realy believes on the principle of "Educate, Organise and Agitate" the path of Ambedkar an alternate to Buddhism.

Satnam Panth as Kabir has given the slogan "Satnam", people use this word as a symbol of regard to Kabir, but after going back to home they remain follow their old tradition of caste system. They could not abololish the caste culture in practices. As a result satnam was only a slogan for true spirit and shifted towards Chaoka Chandan.

Even Guru Nanak has gone one step ahead of Sant Kabir and allowed people to sit togather in Langar. Common meal was added to slogan of "Satnam". Sikhism also could not succeed in removing Caste system. After Lungar when they go back to home they could not gave away their caste culture, of Jat Jamadasi Majhabi etc. It could not convert in to social unity as oneness. Jat do not marry with Majhabi, Tarkhan or Ramdasi.

Satnam Panth eliminated all these this movement brought real changes in the system.It was not limited to the "Jai Satnam" slogan rather joined 'Lungar' which they call 'Bhandara' which means common meal sitting togather in one path / line and crossed the caste boundry by marrying their children. People joined Satnam panth after leaving a side their original castes and they became one family. Unfortunately it was limited to Chhattisgarh only otherwise it would have became national movement of India like Buddhism at one point of time for thousand years. Now the casteless satnam panth has been declared a new caste Satnami after 1930, which was not there as per 1881 Census. Preachings of Satnam movement is almost similar to Lord Buddha, Kabir and Guru Nanak dev.

Tribals were pure Buddhist

There are thousands of evidances available about tribals as buddhist. They do not worhhip idols. Most of the tribal lands in Buddhist area as Sarguja, Malhar, Ratanpur, Sirpur, Bastar, Narayanpur etc, where Buddha is being worshiped as Budha Dev. The image of Shiva is almost similar to Buddha except garlandig serpent on neck of Shiva. The symbol of serpent on buddha statue must have been added afterward as Nagarjun the great philosopher developed "Zero concept" on the bank of Mahanadi River at Sirpur. Sirpur was workshop of Nagarjuna. At Sarguja there was buddhist art and culture center, Deepadih Ramgarh cave and Mainpath are few example which is the most dense tribal area. At Narayanapur a very Big statue of Lord Buddha has been found. Sirpur a biggest Buddha Education Center most of the land are occupied by trlbals.

Shiva as Adi Budha:

Man's desire to seek social justice and equality is universal. As Indian society took its course towards that, something very deep and very profound happened. It was because the chains of slavery were the strongest and social inequality was severest here, the leaders of social change had an arduous task before them. The more arduous task a man takes the more perfect his personality becomes. Thus extraordinary thinkers and brilliant minds arose on the Indian scene to lead an extraordinary socio-cultural revolution. By the side of statue a pillar is seen which is not a shivling, you will get Hundreds of such pillar as ancient art in Sirpur area. Buddha statue is in land touching form.

The name given to this Cultural Revolution is Bhagati-Sufi movement. It was not the first time that Indians worked for social equality and that this fight was a recurring phenomenon, so Bhagati-Sufi movement leaders had a long tradition behind them. They had generations and generations of intellectual guides to follow, starting from the Budhas themselves. It is said that Guru Ravidass had Goraknath as his guru and Goraknath's Nath movement traces its origin to Shiva movement. Shiva himself is actually an Adi Budha. It was the saints of Nath movement who are mentioned in the Quran with high regards. In Nath movement they use Common Meal which they call Bhandara which is commonly pop[ular in Satnami movement also. Puttin hole in the ear and wearing ear rings was common in Nath as well in Satnami movement.

Sikhism was Anti-Brahmin: Gurnam Singh says that Bhagati-Sufi movement formed the general base of Sikhism on which it reclined heavily to take nourishment and furnish its revolutionary content. He proves this quoting extensively from the Guru Granth that the Sikh gurus were persistent in their efforts to make their followers take the path of bhagats, sants and sadhus of this movement.

Under the Ballan experiment the people are asked to follow the path laid by the Bhagati-Sufi movement. Singers were delivering sermons in kirtan-mode urging devotees, to follow the saints, gurus and sadhus of radical Bhagati-Sufi movement.

The Bhagati movement was sold in different shades and hues by different people. While its one end falls close to Brahminism the other represented by intellectuals from shudra and ati-shudra "low castes" is anti-Brahmin. Sikhism is based on that part of the movement that was out and out anti-Brahminical and launched by saints from the "lower castes".

Brahmins Destroy Budhism: The essence from which the Radical Bhagati movement and Sikhism arose is several millennia deep. After the fall of Budhism, the Brahmin hand remained heavy on India's Budhists for centuries. Budhists were degraded to shudra and ati-shudra level. Babasaheb Ambedkar says that the shudra was the name given to Budhists. Caste ghettoes, into which they were thrown, were not only devoid of light and sound of knowledge but also physical security.

" A slave cannot have a faith of his own. He has to remain without it perforce".

Muslims saved Budhism: Budhist revolution that ran for centuries, however, remained etched on their memories till the eve of Muslim invasions. Kapur Singh writes in the Desh Punjab (Nov.2002, p.28):

A sect of Brahmins from Sen caste was living in Maldah (Bengal) country. They committed untold atrocities on Budhists. It is written in two ancient texts, Shuniya Puran and Dharam Puja Vidhari, that seeing this happening to Dharmis (his followers), Niranjana (Gautam) in Vaikunth went into uncontrollable rage. Bearing khuda (Muslim name for god) as his name, he descended on the most pious land of Jajpura. Riding a magnificent black horse, wearing a high black cap, Niranjana was reborn to protect the Dharmis (pious Budhist people) from cruel Brahmins. Thirty-three crore devis and devtas dressed in the manner of Yavana soldiers were his companions on horse back. Thus Niranjana took birth to protect pious people and punish cruel Brahmins.

What a revelation. What did our Brahminical history books say? They say Muslims killed Budhists and destroyed Budhism. But the truth is Muslims saved Budhism.

That means Muslims were saviours of Budhists of this land. They descended on this land to save Budhists from Brahminical atrocities.

The shudras and ati-shudras took two courses of escape from caste ghettoes of Brahminism. A large chunk of them converted to Islam. Other course was they opened their eyes, straightened their backs and arose from centuries-old slumber was even more glorious than this. They started a very powerful anti-Brahmin movement which soon took the shape of a revolution. It can be said that Budhist revolution kept on shedding its brilliance even after bhikhus/Shiva-Shankaras/Shambus were physically annihilated. Sidhas/naths/yogis appeared in their place, forming another (second or third) layer of intellectual guides of people on the sands of Budhist times (history).

Islam attracts Budhists: Thus the shudras and ati- shudras started challenging Brahminism as sidhas/naths/yogis raising the banner of Budhist revolution again. Islamic invasions had gained full momentum in the 10th century. The above episode given by Kapur Singh happened in the 12th century. There is clear evidence that intellectuals had woken up earlier and sidha/nath/yogi movement had started by the 8-9th century.

This was the glorious path, other than conversions to Islam, that the Indian shudras took. Leaders of Bhagati-Sufi movement called sadhus, bhagats, sants, gurus and satgurus were the direct descendents of Naths and Yogis. They formed the fourth or fifth layer of intellectual guides. Drunk with the essence of a deep Budhist culture, distilled and brewed by their predecessors and decanted in Islamic vessels, they turned out to be intellectuals par excellence. And Islamic socio-cultural environment gave boost to their spirits.

Correct (not falsified) history of India, leaves no doubt that pure monotheism of Islam, devoid of rituals and priests, touched the hearts of erstwhile Budhists. Fiery devotional appeal of Islam affected the spiritually minded shudra and Untouchables as they rose from their prolonged slumber.

Gorak Nath movement: When under the influence of Islam their spirits revived, they set to unite their own countrymen under a similar faith and worship of one supreme being as Islam. Sadhu /Yogi and Nath, predecessors of Sants/Bhagats and gurus of Bhagati movement, first grasped this truth, uncovered under Islamic influence and started the Nath-Yogi movement. Guru Ravidass had started following Gorakh Nath's movement rendering his own sermons on the same pattern. The poetry and kirtan-mode of narrating his works was the same as seen in the Nath movement.

Ample evidence is available that yogis and naths were honourable guides of people. As folk lores are no individual's personal property those of Punjab also leave us in no doubt that sidhas/yogis and naths were spiritual guides of people. According to one Punjabi folklore, with the Muslim arrival in India, yogis started pouring into plain from their hiding places in mountains. It is a well known fact of history that as atrocities on Budhists became unbearable our intellectual guides fled the plains of North India for their very lives, hiding in the hills.

Waris Shah writings : The Brahmins first joined these sects, then corrupted and co-opted them and then spread rumours against them. Our Ballan sojourn has put a stamp on our conviction that the yogis and naths were working on the lines of Bhikhus and at least till the early phase of Bhagati movement, they were highly respected ideals of people. And our Ballan visit has confirmed the fact that the Nath/Yogi/ Sidha movement was started by "lower castes" and it is kept kindling by them only.

Proving the profundity of essence of Bhagati-Sufi movement, the radical Bhagati movement (spearheaded by Namdev, Kabir, Ravidass and other intellectuals who have a respectable place in the Guru Granth) shot up as a phenomenon.

Brahmins quickly sensed its harmful effects for Brahminism. They started targeting the Mughal princes who showed inclinations towards these liberal trends. Darashikoh was targated by Brahmains to whome Satnami supported against Aurangjeb.

Khusro & Dara Shikoh victimised: The first prince Khusro, then Dera Shikoh became their targets. Dera Shikoh's curiosity and zeal to investigate the genesis of the Bhagati-Sufi movement and its Radical Bhagati phenomenon cost him dearly.

The Radical Bhagati movement unequivocally repudiated the authority of the Brahminical scriptures and tradition. It ridiculed the Brahmin, condemned the veneration of "sacred" places, denied the theory of avtarhood. They started using native language in place of Sanskrit for the expression of their ideology. They rejected the sectarian Hindu gods and goddesses, avtaras, ritualism and ceremonialism. Thus it was out and out a revolution.

Satnami revolt is an offshoot of this revolution. However Islamic fundamentalists goaded by Brahmins, who had established blood relations with Mughals by now, made the state so blood thirsty that it put down not only the Satnami movement mercilessly but put to death many Sufis. Starting from Guru Arjun Dev, Guru Teg Bahadur, Guru Govind Singh sons and numerous Sikhs became sacrificial goats in the hands of Brahmins who had started leading the Mughal state itself by the nose.

To repeat the whole process of Bhagati-Sufi, Radical Bhagati and Sikh movement was ongoing, one transforming into the next. The Radical Bhagati movement itself was led by four generations of intellectuals. If some of them worked at local, then others like Namdev, Kabir, Ravidass and Guru Ghasidas worked at all-India level.

Each generation of leaders meticulously/flawlessly passed on the banner of revolution to the next and then the next generation. All authorities agree that it was a very spirited affair.


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STORY OF BUDDHA

I am Buddha.I am honored to meet you. This is my story.

The title Buddha means Enlightened One or Awakened One. In history, the Buddha refers to Gautama Siddhattha Buddha. Siddarth was born around 565 B.C. in Lumbini Park in the city of Kapilavastu in the ancient northern India, today's Nepal. He became Siddhattha Gautama, due to his aunty Gautami who served him after his mother Mahamaya's death. ." Mahamaya died on the seventh day after her delivery and her sister, Mahapajapati became the step mother of Siddhattha. Siddarth Gautam became Buddha after getting enlightenment when he was at the age of 48 years. It means birth Buddha was around 517 B.C..

The prince Siddarth grew up in an environment of care and love, respect and joy. However, he was sometimes unhappy. Buddha studied science and technology, art and philosophy, religious knowledge under the tuition of famous scholars, riding, archery, and fencing. Suddodhan expected much from his son and made him crown prince and heir apparent. But this did not please the young man, who steadily grew to be thoughtful and depressed. To cheer him up, his worried father and foster mother built three palaces, one for cold weather, one for hot weather, and one for the rainy season. They appointed many beautiful court ladies to wait on him and arranged banquets with dancing and music. Siddhattha soon married the princess Yasodhara - a beautiful woman. Their son was named Rahula. Hoping to give his son pleasure, King Suddhodana arranged four trips outside the city of Kapilavastu, one through each of its four gates.

On the first three occasions, Siddhattha met with - an aging man, a sick man and a corpse. In the fourth trip he met a calm, serene ascetic monk, who inspired Siddhattha to have same kind of life. "The four gates" represent the state of mind of the prince with respect to the suffering of aging, illness and death. Superficial prosperity in economy and relative stability in political environment cannot relieve people from worry, fear, anxiety and suffering and cannot lead them to ultimate happiness.

With his great compassion, the enthusiastic prince decided to give up his worldly glory and desire, and leave home. He would devote himself to search for the ultimate truth.

Though his love to his family may have hindered him, the birth of his son, Rahula, provided a favorable occasion for his departure since with the birth of his son, Siddattha had fulfilled his karma to his father and his wife according to the Indian tradition. Departing from the palace and the wearing coarse clothes, the prince chose to become a Samana.

Siddhatha went to Rajaghar, the capital of Magadha, which was the centre of culture with many orthodox and unorthodox monks. By that time, the two major disciplines for the sake of enlightenment were meditation and ascetic austeritics.

Siddhattha studyied meditation under two famous teachers, Alara-Kalama and Uddaka-Ramaputta. The state attained by Alara-Kalama was that of a much higher formless world where physical matter no longer exists. Uddaka-Ramaputta reached an even higher state at which neither thought nor non-thought existed. Siddhatha did not find it difficult to attain either state. Attaining these states of mind did not ease his mental anxieties, because once he stopped meditation, he returned to the mental state of depression.

He knew that only reaching a state of absolute tranquillity could attain the true liberation from the attachment of ignorance and suffering.

He left his teachers to continue his search for the ultimate truth.

He next practiced asceticism, which was very common among Samanas. They believed that the human suffering was caused by the attachment to the physical body and the mental spirit. Suffering can only be freed by detaching the spirit imposed by the body. Therefore, they tormented themselves for the purpose of weakening the power of the physical body over the mental spirit, until the body was destructed.

Siddhattha passed through the country of Magadha to the town of Uruvela, where he settled in a grove of trees to find enlightenment.

Practicing austerities for six years, he was extremely tough on himself and put himself through many difficult tests after which was became so weak his body was nothing more than skin and bones. Realizing that asceticism had no effect in attaining enlightenment, Siddhattha decided to give up austerities. He accepted a bowl of milk from a maid Sugata. He ate and gradually recovered his strength. Knowing that neither meditation nor ascetic austerities could lead to the Enlightenment, Siddhattha stopped following existing methods but turned to find his own way. He prepared a seat with soft grass under a Bodhi tree. Sitting in the lotus posture, he made a vow not to leave until he attained enlightenment. Having struggled with Mara Papiyan (the Evil King representing all kinds of desires, hatred and ignorance) in deep meditations in the state of Samadhi, he was finally enlightened. He discovered the reality of universe, and found the path to free humanity from the suffering of birth and death thus attaining eternal happiness.

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These are Four Nobel Truths

1. The Noble Truth of Suffering: Rebirth, old age, disease, death, sorrow, lamenting, pain, grief and despair, association with objects we dislike, separation from objects we love, not to obtain what one desires cause suffering. There are also many happy hours and pleasure in man's life-time, but according to the law of nature, they are impermanent and these last only for a short time and vanish into nothing. They behind leave only sorrow, lamentation, pain, grief and despair.

2. The Noble Truth of The Arising of Suffering: The Threefold Craving leads every being from birth to birth and is accompanied by joy and lust, seeking its gratification here and there, namely: Sensual Craving, Craving for Existence and Craving for Wealth and Power. There are also a six fold craving, namely the eye craves for forms, the ear craves for sounds, the nose craves for odors, the tongue craves for taste, the body craves for objects, and the mind craves for noun, dreams or illusions. These Cravings and ignorance of the law of nature are the condition of origin of individual suffering.

3. The Noble Truth of the Cessation of Suffering: The condition of cessation of suffering is the complete fading away and extinction of this three fold craving, forsaking it and giving it up, the liberation and detachment from it. The condition of mind of a person who has been giving up his threefold cravings or this sixfold craving together with ignorance can realize Nirvana (or the Extinction of the Cravings).

4. The Noble Truth of The Path leading to the Cessation of Suffering: It is the 'Noble Eightfold Path' (or the 'Middle Path' because it avoids the two extremes of sensual pleasure and self-mortification), that leads to the Cessation of Suffering.